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Dr. Md. Tanvir Rahman is a Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science at Bangladesh Agricultural University. He is also the DIRECTOR of the Professor Muhammed Hussain Central Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University. He is also an Adjunct Visiting Professor of Xinxiang University, Henan, China. Dr. Rahman completed DVM from Bangladesh Agricultural University , MSc from University of Guelph, Canada, PhD and University of Warwick, UK and Postdoc from the Max-Planck-Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major health crisis globally. Migratory birds could be a potential source for antibiotic resistant (ABR) bacteria, but nothing is known in this regard in Bangladesh. Here 66 freshly dropped fecal materials of migratory birds were analyzed. Bacterial isolation and identification were based on cultural properties and PCR. The disk diffusion method was employed to evaluate antibiogram profiles. By PCR, out of 66 samples, the detection rate of Enterococcus spp. (60.61%; 95% confidence interval: 48.55–71.50%) was found significantly higher than Salmonella spp. (21.21%; 95% CI: 13.08–32.51%) and Vibrio spp. (39.40%; 95% CI: 28.50–51.45%). Enterococcus isolates were frequently found resistant (100–40%) to ampicillin, streptomycin, meropenem, erythromycin, and gentamicin; Salmonella isolates were frequently resistant (72–43%) to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, and erythromycin; and Vibrio spp. isolates were frequently resistant (77–31%) to vancomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin. In addition, 60% (95% CI: 44.60–73.65%) Enterococcus spp., 85.71% (95% CI: 60.06–97.46%) Salmonella spp., and 76.92% (95% CI: 57.95–88.97%) Vibrio spp. isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR) in nature. Three isolates (one from each bacterium) were found resistant against six classes of antibiotics. The bivariate analysis revealed strong associations (both positive and negative) between several antibiotic pairs which were resistant to isolated organisms. This is the first study in detecting MDR Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. from migratory birds travelling to Bangladesh. Frequent detection of MDR bacteria from migratory birds travelling to Bangladesh suggests that these birds have the potential to carry and spread ABR bacteria and could implicate potential risks to public health. We recommend that these birds should be kept under an AMR surveillance program to minimize the potential risk of contamination of the environment with ABR as well as to reduce their hazardous impacts on health.